When you research online about bugging-out the pictures associated with the articles or blog entries usually shows the person humping along a path or roadway free of snow. Do the articles talk about bugging-out in deep snow, in frigid temperatures, when there is a baby strapped to your back, when you have elderly relatives trekking alongside you? 

Rarely do you see anyone huddle up against freezing rain or blowing snow, making his or her way out of a disaster area. The doomsday shows depicted people fleeing an urban area in the heat of summer, never when the roads are clogged with snow, or the bridges are slick with ice, so what if you had to bug-out during the coldest part of the year.

Previous articles have talked extensively about bugging-out, and how in most cases, it is safer to shelter in place. However, we must always assume the worst and plan for that, and then hope for the best, so you do need a plan for bugging-out in the middle of winter.

You know better than anyone does what type of weather your area receives during the winter. Do you get heavy snows, ice, cold rains or is it dry and cold. However, what has been the pattern in the past may not necessarily apply, because of El Niño. In other words, you may get more or less of the same, or experience some dramatic changes. You would have to expect, snow, ice, winds and cold temperatures if you live in the Northern States.

We will not get into all of the reasons why you may have to evacuate, because that is a decision that has to be made by you as the situation unfolds. You will know when the time comes whether you have to leave your home or not, and in some cases, there may be a mandatory evacuation order issued by your local government.

How Would You Leave

You have to remember that during a major crisis the roads would not be plowed or treated, so the snow and/or ice may prevent you from leaving in your vehicle. Even a four-wheel drive vehicle can get bogged down in the snow and they cannot get far on icy roads.

Options include snowmobiles, skies, and snowshoes. Ideally, you would have snowmobiles with pull behind sleds so you can transport supplies and people. There is ideal, of course, and then there is the reality, so you may have to travel on skies or use snowshoes or simply try to forge ahead with what you have. You can pull sleds, or toboggans behind you, as well, to transport supplies and children or those with physical impairments.

If you live in a city having a snowmobile would likely be out of the question. You can however, use sleds, skies and toboggans, and they can be stored relatively easily. You can pick up plastic sleds with tow ropes at any Wal-Mart store, keeping in mind they are seasonal items so pick them up as soon as they are displayed.

If you had to leave in the winter you would have to get to your destination before dark unless you have extensive cold weather survival training and the proper gear to spend a night in the cold. You may be trying to get to a relatives’ home, a friend’s house, to a city close by, or to any emergency shelter, so it is important you know multiple ways of getting to your destination, and know how to get there essentially on foot.

It takes planning and knowing how to get to your destination without using roads or highways because they may be clogged with those that tried and failed to get out of town. You may very well have to travel cross country to get to your destination. Going across country may reduce the number of miles, but the terrain may be restrictive, so you do have to know what to expect if you have to get to a relatives’ home or to a neighboring town or city where there may be emergency shelters.

Pack your supplies in plastic bins with lids so they can be secured to sleds or trailers. The biggest concern is the cold. Preventing hypothermia is a priority especially if you have young children or older adults. You have to keep dry and block the frigid wind with the proper clothing.

Bugging-out in the winter should be the last resort, but it has to be an option, so make sure it is a viable option by proper planning.

This article is merely a reminder that disasters can happen to anyone at anytime of the year. Your plans have to take the seasons into account. You need plans for bugging out in the cold and in the heat. This article is more of an academic exercise, than it is anything else, one to get you thinking about what if’s, and to get you to think about your plans for cold weather travel, because it could happen to you.

This content was originally published here.

This video is about Modern Homesteading. A great green bean year. We are stocked up and so now is our friends.

When it comes to preparedness, it’s easy to get caught up the rat race of caliber selection and food storage. “Beans, bullets, and band-aids” is what sustains an army, as the saying goes.

No one argues that these things are unimportant. But if that’s your first and only focus, then you’re putting the cart before the horse. Here’s why:

Considering what’s about to happen over the next ten plus years, I think the odds are stacked against most Americans.

Economists and investors are warning not only about a recession in 12-24 months and potential for another financial crisis, but they’re also concerned that the Federal Reserve has limited options to boost economic growth once a recession sets in.

If these economists and investors are right, that leaves open the distinct possibility that the next recession will last a lot longer than the average 11 months.

So we could see more than 11 months of economic contraction, which makes a financial crisis all the more likely.

That crisis could be in the national debt (a $22 trillion problem, and growing), corporate debt (an $8 trillion problem), in consumer debt (a $4 trillion problem), in pensions (a $6 trillion problem), in housing or in a number of other areas.

The truth about U.S. economic growth is that it’s largely debt-driven, the holes we’re digging are deep, and it’s going to have serious consequences.

Add the current toxic political and social environment, and it’s no surprise that most people gravitate towards guns and food in what could be another very ugly period in American history.

But it’s also vitally important that we understand the local effects of these national crises.

It’s vitally important that we study our local vulnerabilities and fault lines, along with current and potential threats in our own communities.

This type of information goes into an Area Study, which informs us of the range of potential conditions and outcomes during the coming crisis.

More than anything, the Area Study is our guide to understanding what factors will affect us, negatively or positively.

If you don’t have an Area Study, chances are good that you won’t be able to anticipate future conditions and events. That means you’re a lot less prepared than you think, because situational awareness is a critical factor in your safety and security.

And that’s really the value and utility of intelligence: you can reduce uncertainty about what happens in the future and identify the range of potential outcomes. Once you know that, you can identify your actual operational requirements for each scenario and be better prepared.

This quote that’s often mis-attributed to Albert Einstein sums up my point:

“If I had an hour to solve a problem I’d spend 55 minutes thinking about the problem and 5 minutes thinking about solutions.”

The truth is that no amount of beans, bullets, and band-aids will reduce your uncertainty about what happens in the future.

Only intelligence can do that.

Only intelligence can give you a more accurate expectation of what could happen in the future. And the thing is, this stuff isn’t really all that complex. The average “prepper” can do this.

If you agree that understanding the future is important, then I invite you to sign up for a four-part Area Study & Assessment email series which goes into some detail about how to build your Area Study.

Its only cost is the time I spent writing it and the time you spend reading it — plus the time you spend doing it.

It’s well worth your time. You can sign up below.

Always Out Front,
Samuel Culper

Samuel Culper is a former military intelligence NCO and contract Intelligence analyst. He spent three years in Iraq and Afghanistan and is now the intelligence and warfare researcher at Forward Observer.

This content was originally published here.

If your prepping is hap hazardous then your readiness for a crisis could be called into question. There are certain records that you should keep to ensure, you always know where you are at all times when it comes to being ready for a crisis.

Staying organized is important and if you cannot determine what you have, when you bought it, how much you have, and how long it is good for, then you may run into problems at some point, problems that could cost you money and have an effect on your preparedness. Good record keeping can help to keep you up to date and always ready.

First, however, let’s talk about security and record keeping. Businesses big and small today are developing their own disaster plans. Often times the businesses do so in cooperation with local authorities, the Red Cross and even FEMA in some cases.

Schools in particular will develop plans and stockpile certain supplies, materials, and equipment that must be purchased, inventoried and safeguarded. Private and public organizations prepare for active shooters, natural disasters, and man-made disasters.

Your preparedness and record keeping would not be much different from a large corporation except for the scale. You, as well as businesses need a plan, need supplies and need someone that is in charge of various aspects of the operation and above all else the organization needs good record keeping.

In your case you will want to control your supplies and materials so you know if there is theft, loss (misplacement), damage, spoilage, and wastefulness. You need to keep track of purchases, when and where in most cases, and track usage, when and where and by whom.

Children and even some in your Prepper group may decide that emergency supplies are so-called community property. Your children may think that mom and dad’s gear and supplies would make for a nifty camping expedition.

If you are responsible for a Prepper group and if those in the group combine resources to make purchases, you never want to be in a position where something (money) cannot be accounted for. Money, friends, and even family do not mix well in some cases. Anytime others are involved in purchases that benefit the group, as a whole, then the records must be in order for those that have a need to know, or a stake in the outcome if you will.

Does the money that has been spent match the inventory on hand? When something used the money is spent to replace it must be accounted for. If you cannot account for purchases and then match against usage then you have no idea where yours or someone else’s money is going essentially.     

The problem with record keeping is that others can access those records unless properly safeguarded, and records as simple as a receipt for ammunition and supplies should be protected from prying eyes. Records will help you do costs comparisons, track what you have and how much you have used, for example.

Today, most people keep records on computers, smart phones, and tablets which are susceptible to hacking, or susceptible to snoops that simply pick up your device. If your information is not safeguarded then anyone that comes into your home could potentially have access.

You as an individual may not find this too alarming, but if you have organized a Prepper group, helped with your company’s disaster plan, or even helped your school with theirs then there is information, records in other words, that have to be safeguarded. Have a security plan in place for your records and for the records of all involved when you are helping out, or actually work for an organization that has a crisis plan in place.

It is important that you keep meticulous records when it comes to firearms. At some point you may have to prove ownership, and you do not want to rely on the person or business you bought the firearm from to provide the documents. They may not have them, or it can take weeks in some cases, for the business or individual to provide the documents, and in the mean time your firearms are confiscated because of a paperwork snafu.

Your records are personal and you may want to limit the number of people that know you have a firearm, for example. In some states you can purchase a firearm without a license so a public record request may not show that you own any at all, which to some is a good thing, so do not make it easy for anyone to find out by leaving records laying around the house that anyone including your children can access.

Inventory sheets are records and the more organized you are the more money you can save in some cases. Not knowing the shelf life of all foods stockpiled can mean you end up wasting food. Not knowing what you have may result in duplicates as well. Of course, you cannot have too many cans of this food or that food, but the money you spend to buy something you already have may have been better spent on something you did not have. Knowing what is on hand gives you better control over how your money is spent.

You need to track what comes in and what goes out just like a financial budget, and less coming in with more going out usually means you end up with nothing. Some of you may be thinking that your supply stockpile is not large enough to worry about it. A simple glance at the shelf tells you all you need to know. However, you may not be the only one involved, others in the family may at some point have to do it, and so they need to know the details, and what better way to get up to speed than looking at the records you have kept.

Everyone needs a budget. A certain amount has to be set aside to fund your prepping, because if prepping supplies are not accounted for separately and if everything is considered daily use then things may be used without you realizing they are gone, things that you will need during a crisis. If you are not paying attention you may not know this until disaster strikes.

If you have been prepping for some time and have not kept records you can start now. You would have to go through and inventory, update, discard and replace to ensure you are ready.

You need to know what you have, what it is used for, and a record of training with any specialized equipment or gear by all involved. Additional things you may need to know include expected life span of the gear, material, or supplies, and current replacement costs of all supplies.

This content was originally published here.

People living in Flagstaff and other parts of Northern Arizona discovered just how much they depend on technology. A fiber optic cable was cut, supposedly cut by vandals leaving close to 70,000 residents without Internet, ATM services, cell service, cable television and not to mention the disruptions in 911 services, transactions at supermarkets, gas stations and the list goes on.

Stores immediately posted signs saying cash only, but people could not withdraw cash from ATM machines, and banks suffered as well because nearly every institution today relies on communication technology, which by the stroke of an ax or shovel was severed in the small town. It ended up a vicious circle of disruption that lasted for hours.

Students could not access online college courses and the so-called Internet Cafes suffered financial losses because people could not access free Wi-Fi, so why stick around and just drink coffee. It is not just about the coffee anymore.

Joseph Hobbs, an information technology consultant and contractor in the area explained why cell phone customers were experiencing problems as well.

“The information from a cell phone call is collected by cell towers and concentrated from low speed to high speed fiber optic carriers at various points” (Associated Press, 2015).

A person familiar with the situation stated that typically fiber optic cable is buried just two to four feet underground. Anyone knowing where to dig, and with a few rudimentary tools could uncover the cable and create an outage without much effort at all.

There seems to be no doubt in most people’s minds that this was an intentional act.

Next time it could be a larger city and regardless of size, disruptions in certain services such as 911 could create a life or death situation.

Was this situation a dry run, a test to gauge the response by the authorities, to see how long the services were disrupted? Did someone think that by cutting the services to the city that they could then waltz in and rob a bank or store and not have police respond, or was this a prelude to something bigger.

Did whoever cut the cable have a grudge against the provider or the city, was it an employee of the service provider, or was it an employee of the city for that matter. Was someone’s bill too high so they decided to cut the cord so to speak, or was this just a random act of vandalism.

It is hard to imagine someone or more than one person were out driving around and just decided to start digging, and then come upon a buried cable, and then deciding just hack it in two while they are at it, very hard to imagine. Someone had to know where to dig and had to know it was not a high voltage line before cutting it, it seems some planning went into this. Someone had prior knowledge and planned to cut the cable, someone set out that day to create havoc.

What is apparent is that we all are much too dependent upon technology. Store clerks are so accustomed to their machines that they may not have been able to do the simple math required to count change back when people pay with cash. People were literally in tears because of the disruption.

In today’s age of technology it defies logic that a person with a shovel and/or ax or even with a large knife could create such havoc for 70,000 plus people. It makes one wonder what could be next and will it be my town or your town, will it be my place of employment or my child’s school.

You Have To Be Prepared For Anything

Of course this will not be the last time. Until service providers whether they provide gas, water, electric or high speed Internet decides to step up their security it will happen again and possibly on a much larger scale with deadly consequences.

Next time it could be water main break, or someone could poison a water reservoir or decide to shoot up a power station and turn the lights out.

You cannot put all of your eggs in one basket. Even though debit cards are widely used as you can see they are no good however, when there is a disruption in communications. You cannot pump gasoline, cannot buy anything anywhere, and if you do not have cash then you go without until, and if the problem is fixed. Next time it could be days or even weeks.

Have enough supplies on hand so you do not have to rush to the bank or ATM machine to try and get cash only to find out they have failed as well. Make sure your vehicle is always topped off with fuel, and that you have enough food and water for short and long-term outages.

Some people if not many people simply cannot communicate without cellular service because they do not have landline service in their homes. People do their banking on smart phones, control their home security with smart phones and many alarm systems for homes and businesses today rely on cellular networks to alert the authorities when an alarm is triggered. Some people even control their entire businesses over the Internet and with cell phones and tablets. Even a short disruption creates major headaches for many people.

Be prepared to get along without the Internet, and cell service, and learn to carry some cash so when debit card transactions cannot be processed you can still put fuel in your car, and put food on the table. You know how to do it, but everyone is so accustomed to reaching for their phones, tablets and debit cards they have forgotten how to do without them, but you can, and you may have to in the very near future.

Associated Press. (2015). Retrieved 2015, from http://azdailysun.com/news/local/cut-cable-downs-internet-service-for-northern-arizona/article_904b4c69-c3d7-59ca-bc72-f8cb64313a29.html

This content was originally published here.

If you do a search online about survival supply caches hundreds of pages become available for viewing. There are as many opinions on the subject as there are pages, so it can be confusing. Everyone has their own thoughts on the subject, but keep in mind every situation is different, so there is not a one size fits all. Common sense has to play a role however.

Keep in mind some of the blog writers and forum posters may be auditioning to write scripts for the Walking Dead television show, so you do have to sift through the information, and not take what is written at face value.

The concept of a cache is simple. Hide essentials supplies that can be retrieved later. Additionally, you have to protect the supplies from moisture, rodents, insects, and thieves.

After doing some research you may find that one person believes in hiding ammunition in one cache and firearms in another for example. The idea of course, is that if someone finds one or the other he or she does not get it all. However, what happens if you show up at the ammunition cache without your firearm, because it was stolen or lost. You now have a thousand rounds of ammunition and no firearm, so you have to load up the ammo and start the trek to the cache that has spare firearms.

To some this may be acceptable, but common sense should tell you that no matter how many caches you have they should all replicate each other, because if not you will be digging holes all over the country. It may make more sense to have one or two well stocked caches that are self sustaining, so if you show up in nothing but shorts and sandals you have all that is needed for surviving from that point forward. It makes sense to have caches within a reasonable distance of your home as well.

Caches are not just for those that have bugged out. Having a cache buried close by could be a life saver if your community is struck by a tornado, hurricane, or earthquake or even if a wildfire strikes the area.

Your home and everything inside may be destroyed, but having a cache close by means you having clothing, medical supplies, food and other essentials in the first few hours and days of the event.

Bugging Out and Supply Caches

You have routes mapped out and you have a plan. You know where you would go once the SHTF and you have caches buried along the route. Sounds good on paper but, and there is always a “but” when it comes to plans and the execution of said plans. Things rarely work out as planned however.

Again common sense should tell you that unless you have a comparable location you can actually get to that has shelter, and a certain level of infrastructure then bugging out is dangerous. Some so-called experts recommend that you have a bug-out location 70 to 100 miles from a metropolitan area, which makes sense until you are faced with getting there on foot.

Your supply caches are located along the route, and you assume you can walk to each one in 24 hours, based on a 3 mph hour walking speed. First, you will not be walking at 3 mph so you may very well be out of certain supplies before you even make it to the first cache. A bug-out-bag is supposedly designed to sustain you for 72-hours, but to reduce weight you are carrying less water and food because you assumed you would make it to your cache to resupply.

It probably makes more sense in most cases, to have supply caches buried so you can retrieve the supplies to bring back to your home to shelter in place. Why not just leave the supplies at home then. If you have all of your supplies in one place they can be all stolen or damaged at one time.

If you cannot get to your safe haven or bug-out location without hunting for buried supplies then you are better off not leaving at all. It does however, make sense to have supplies buried at your destination, so if or when you do get there you can sustain yourself for a certain period. Burying supplies in areas you have no control over means you may lose your supplies. 

Even if you cannot immediately get to your safe haven you know there are supplies there that can be recovered at some point. Having caches here and there along multiple routes because one may be blocked is cost prohibitive and time consuming, and you simply have no control over the locations. You may show up to retrieve your cache one day to find a strip mall built over your supplies.

A survival cache can be buried in your backyard to make sure you have supplies in the event of a robbery, fire or any disaster that destroys your supplies inside the home. Unless someone besides you knows you have supplies buried in the backyard they are likely safe from marauders and looters.

Bury supplies so if you are literally run out of your home you can supply yourself. This may mean hiding certain caches close to the home, but out of sight of the home, so you can recover them without being discovered. This will take careful planning, but it makes more sense than having several caches buried 50 miles apart in various locations.

Having supplies buried 20 miles from your home is doable during a crisis, because even if you had to hike to them you can within a reasonable period. Beyond 20 mile and the situation cannot be controlled. Survival is all about controlling your environment to the greatest extent possible.

This content was originally published here.

Someone is breaking into your home; you have a duty to  protect yourself and your family, but with response times as unreliable as they are, as you’ll soon learn in this video, your safety is not guaranteed. According to Milwaukee County Sheriff David A. Clark who was interviewed for this video, it takes 20 minutes …

This content was originally published here.

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Here is an excellent video that will show you ten alternate uses for hand warmers.
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This content was originally published here.

Having the Right Information Helps

The small details make survival possible so begin your quest for knowledge today so you do not get tripped up by the small things that add up to bigger things in a survival situation.

Once the power goes out you have decisions to make. Your freezer is loaded full and the refrigerator has everything from milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, breads, pies to last night’s meatloaf, so what to do with all the food if the power is interrupted for an extended period.

The frozen foods can last up to 48 hours before the food has to be cooked/processed or essentially thrown away. The inside of your refrigerator however will only hold a safe temperature between 4 and 6 hours. Much depends on how often you open and close the doors.

Break It Down

Milk will spoil in a matter of hours, as will the cottage cheese, and eggs and any fresh meats will spoil within hours unless cooked or processed in some way that allows them to remain out of refrigeration.

A Side Note about Eggs:

Fresh eggs you have gathered yourself can be stored out of refrigeration if you know the technique(s). Do not attempt the following techniques if the fresh eggs are over three days old.

Various methods that were common in years past include using sodium silicate, also known as “waterglass”, and using lard to coat, the eggs (use any method described with caution).

The following is a direct quota on the use of sodium silicate used for preserving fresh eggs:

“For preserving eggs: Only use fresh eggs, which have been wiped clean, but not washed. Mix eleven parts water with one part water glass in an earthenware crock. Place eggs in solution leaving about two inches of liquid above the eggs. One quart of water glass will treat about 16 dozen eggs”.


“Mix one part Water glass with ten parts cooled, boiled water and pour into a large, stone crock. Wipe off fresh eggs with a flannel cloth and place in solution (eggs should be covered with 2″). Cover crock and store in a cool, dry place”.

(From The Boston Cooking School Cook Book by Fannie Farmer, ® 1886)

Some today still coat fresh eggs with melted lard or cooking oil so they are stable out of the refrigerator. If using lard dip or coat the eggs then let cool and then wipe/buff the eggs and dip/coat again then buff once more. This method fills in the pores in the eggshell that helps seals out contaminates. If done correctly the eggs can be stored out of refrigeration up to 90 days or even longer in some cases. Do not process eggs using this method if they have cracks in them.

Now, back to the other foods in the refrigerator, the information provided about eggs demonstrates the type of information a Prepper or others may need during a crisis or extended power outage.

Produce can be stored out of refrigeration and depending on how long it had been stored prior to the outage; you may have up to five days. Cooling certain fruits and vegetables slows the ripening process so tomatoes and certain other fruits and vegetables will begin to ripen quickly once allowed to warm up.

The fruits and vegetables produce an odorless colorless gas called ethylene, which triggers the production of enzymes. Because this process is now well-known producers and retailers can control the ripening process, so you really do not know how long it has been from harvest to your table.

Breads can stay on the shelf and to increase the shelf life allow the bread to go stale by removing the wrappers. To speed up the process take any fresh bread and toast it over heat. Stale or toasted bread has less moisture content. Removing the moisture from the bread is important to prevent the growth of mold, which needs moisture to breed.

Hard cheeses will be fine out of refrigeration and if any mold does appear, it can be trimmed off. This only applies to real cheese that is made with enzymes that cause the cheese to come together and when made using cream or unpasteurized milk. This does not apply to processed cheese or cheese spreads made with oils. It is important that you know the difference.

Vinegar or similar acid based condiments can be stored on the shelf. Catsup, hot sauces and mustard are just a few condiments that can be kept out of refrigeration.

Baked goods, (pies, cakes and other baked deserts) can stay out of refrigeration until you find them too dry to eat (stale) or they begin to show mold.

Remove ice from the ice bin to melt down for drinking water and to prevent water damage if it begins to leak or use the ice in coolers to help keep foods chilled.

Fresh meats can be cooked for immediate use; immediate use means it must be eaten within a relatively short time after cooking within three hours typically.

You can dry the meats for preserving as well. Meats not recommend for drying include pork and mutton.

It is important that you do not allow foods to spoil in the refrigerator. This will create odors, and deadly bacteria and it will attract insects and rodents. Once food has spoiled, you would never want to use the refrigerator again.

Coolers can be used to help prolong your fresh foods if you have ice cubes or have some frozen water jugs or you can use snow by packing it on top of the foods in a cooler. If it is cold outside you may place some foods outside as long as they are not placed in the sun.

Radiant heating will warm up surfaces past the freezing mark even if the air temperature is below freezing (why roads and driveways thaw faster) and well above the safe holding temperatures for many foods in some cases.

Place the foods inside of a container (Tupperware containers for example) to protect the foods from rodents/predators. The containers should allow the cold to penetrate unless you are using coolers that are being chilled inside by ice or snow.

Basements below ground can also be used. In years past root cellars were used and as the name implies root vegetables were stored there year around. Anything that needs chilling can be stored in a below ground basement to include milk, eggs and fresh meats.

Here are a few facts:

The temperature in the ground below 20 ft (6meters) is roughly equal to the mean annual air temperature at that latitude at the surface. What does this mean? It means that depending on latitude, the temperature beneath the upper 20 ft of  the earth’s surface maintains a nearly constant temperature between 50 and 60 ᵒF (10 and 16 °C) (US Department of Energy, 2014) .

What Is a Springhouse?

Before refrigeration and even after refrigerators were more common people stored their perishable foods in well houses or in a springhouse. Natural springs in many cases were a source of water for a homestead. The spring would bubble out of the ground or even through rock fissures. To protect the water source from animals and insects a springhouse was built over the spring. A springhouse was typically built from rocks natural to the area, which also helped to maintain a cooler temperature inside the structure.

A cistern was usually built to allow the water to pool to make collection of the water easier. The chilled water bubbling from the earth and then collecting in a pool would evaporate and cool the springhouse. Certain things like milk in glass bottles or other waterproof containers were stored in the water.

The above information once presented seems like common sense information but unless you have practiced some of the methods or techniques, they may never come to mind when needed.

Spoiled food may not seem like a big deal right now but once you are presented with 20 pounds of spoiled meats and other products, when the lights go out, it is a big deal, and it will consume your time and creates frustration and even anger. Neither of which you need in a survival situation.

There is a lot more to survival than meets the eye and in most cases, you do not realize all that can go wrong until it does. Pre-warned is pre-armed they say, so learn what can go wrong now so you can come up with a plan to keep the small things from escalating into big problems when you are in the midst of a crisis.

US Department of Energy. (2014). Retrieved 2014, from http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/

This content was originally published here.